The sanctions target about two dozen top officials and entities and include visa and business bans and asset freezes. Bush also directed tighter controls on Burma's exports and authorized the Treasury Department to place sanctions on individuals or groups believed to be financially backing the regime or committing human rights abuses.
Bush's announcement marks the second time he has ordered sanctions on Burma since last month's deadly crackdown non democratic activists.
"Burma's rulers continue to defy the world's just demands to stop their vicious persecution," Bush said. "They continue to dismiss calls to begin peaceful dialogue aimed at national reconciliation. Most of all, they continue to reject the clear will of the Burmese people to live in freedom."
The Treasury Department on Friday placed sanctions on 11 more individuals, Bush said, adding he has authorized a new designation that enacts sanctions on 12 more individuals and entities.
They include the minister of commerce, Brigadier General Tin Naing Thein; the minister of industry, Major General Saw Lwin; the heads of nine other government agencies; and the mayor of Rangoon, Brigadier General Aung Thein Lin.
Sanctions also fell on five Burma companies and two Singapore-based firms, Pavo Trading and Air Bagan Holdings.
Bush praised the European Union and Australia for also applying sanctions on Burma and called on other nations to review their policies toward the Southeast Asian country, especially China and India, Burma's most important and influential neighbours.
"The people of Burma are showing great courage in the face of immense repression," Bush said. "They are appealing for our help. We must not turn a deaf ear to their cries."
The violent response by Burma security forces September 26-27 after weeks of protests by democratic activists and Buddhist monks left at least 11 dead, according to official figures. Human rights groups and observers believe the death toll was much higher.
Hundreds of activists remain jailed, including four who were detained last weekend.
Bush urged the regime's leaders to begin dialogue with the dissidents and plan for a transition to an elected government, and to allow the International Committee of the Red Cross to meet with political prisoners.
Washington has asked the UN Security Council to consider international sanctions, and Bush said Burma's rulers should allow the immediate entry of special UN envoy Ibrahim Gambari.
The US government enacted sanctions September 27 that included an asset freeze and business and visa bans with top officials, including the chief of the ruling State Peace and Development Council, Senior General Than Shwe, who also serves as defence minister and effectively rules the country
The sanctions also targeted Lieutenant General Thein Sein, the acting prime minister, and Vice Senior General Maung Aye, the commander of the army and 11 other individuals.
The State Department has since added 260 names of Burma officials and their family members to the visa ban list, Bush said.
The US government has had sanctions on Burma to limit textile exports since 2003 following another crackdown against democratic activists and the jailing of Nobel Peace Prize laureate and pro-democracy leader Aung Sang Suu Kyi, who remains in detention.